Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of Fit (K-S) Test. For example, the normality of residuals obtained in linear regression is rarely tested, even though it governs the quality of the confidence intervals surrounding parameters and predictions. How to do the correlation analysis in STATA? MODEL . For this purpose, statistical or empirical normality tests are conducted. Hence, FDI Inflows for a period of 1994-2015, is normally distributed. Provide a high confidence level in the analysis. Material was copied and pasted here from Jarque bera, now a redirect page with the early edit history. CHOW= print the predictive Chow test . Test statistic value > critical Value Or P-Value < α value. Furthermore, the distribution of p-values departs from a uniform distribution and becomes a right-skewed unimodal distribution, especially for small p-values. ARCHTEST . The test is named after Carlos Jarque and Anil K. Bera. The test statistic is always nonnegative. Performance assessment of growth, income, and value stocks listed in the BSE (2015-2020), Trend analysis of stocks performance listed in BSE (2011-2020), Annual average returns and market returns for growth, income, and value stocks (2005-2015), We are hiring freelance research consultants. We have been assisting in different areas of research for over a decade. Test statistic value > critical Value Or P-Value < α value. PCHOW= suppress printed output . Results of the Jarque-Bera test are not aligned with other statistical results thus depicting that it is not suitable for a small sample size. EViews and Stata support the Jarque-Bera test. The test statistic of the Jarque-Bera test is always a positive number and if it’s far from zero, it indicates that the sample data do not have a normal distribution. If the p-value is lower than the Chi(2) value then the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Jarque-Bera test and Shapiro-Wilk test are the most effective normality tests but the difference is that the former is suitable for large sample size, whereas the latter is applicable in case of a small sample size. Establish theories and address research gaps by sytematic synthesis of past scholarly works. typically represented by the below hypothesis. The table shows that the significance or p-value of the K-S test (0.000) is less than the tolerable significance level of 5% i.e. TEST=LM . J. Sky David & Gregorio Impavido, 1998. The formula of Jarque-Bera However, K-S Test can only be applied in SPSS. Riya is a master in Economics from Amity University. Keywords htest, math. Note that this test only works for a large enough number of data samples (>2000) as the test statistic asymptotically has a Chi-squared distribution with 2 degrees of freedom. Jarque-Bera Test: Check the joint probability of skewness and kurtosis from the normal distribution values. This article defines MAQL to calculate skewness and kurtosis that can be used to test the normality of a given data set. PARTIAL . Suitable for large sample size. Testing Normality Using Stata 6. nrepl the number of replications in Monte Carlo simulation. always accepted. In effect, sktest offers two adjustments for sample size, that ofRoyston(1991c) and that ofD’Agostino, Belanger, and D’Agostino(1990). Normality tests help in checking whether the data It also explained the various ways to test normality graphically using the SPSS software. If it is far from zero, it signals the data do not have a normal distribution. Test statistic value < critical Value Or P-Value > α value. Shapiro-Wilk test can be performed in SPSS and Stata. Why is it important to test heteroskedasticity in a dataset? The test statistic measures the difference of the skewness and kurtosis of the series with those from the normal distribution. We introduce the “sample” technique to generate robust critical values for the Jarque and Bera (JB) Lagrangian Multiplier (LM) test for normality, JBCV(kk 12,), by using improved critical values the true size of the test approaches its nominal value. Statistical tests such as regression assume the The test statistic JB is defined as: JB =(n/6) * (S 2 + (C 2 /4)) where: n: the number of observations in the sample; S: the sample skewness; C: the sample kurtosis Testing Normality Using SAS 5. x The table below shows some p-values approximated by a chi-squared distribution that differ from their true alpha levels for small samples. and work on normally distributed data because of its benefits (Parbhakar, I performed a quick test of the A-D test, Jarque-Bera, and Spiegelhalter's test (1983), under the null, with sample size 8, repeating 10,000 times. NOPRINT . In statistics, the Jarque–Bera test is a goodness-of-fit test of whether sample data have the skewness and kurtosis matching a normal distribution. • Jarque-Bera is a test statistic for testing whether the series is normally distributed. 258 C. M. Jarque, A. K. Bera / Tests for normality, homoscedasticity, serial independence first term in (4) is identical to the LM residual normality test for the case of HI residuals [e.g., Jarque and Bera (1980)], say LM,. From tables critical value at 5% level for 2 degrees of freedom is 5.99 So JB>c2 critical, … Many statistical functions require … Conclusion 1. NORMAL . b 1, b 2, and b 3 are for tests of the null hypothesis that the K 1 vector of disturbances follows a multivariate normal distribution. Testing Normality Using SPSS 7. The Jarque-Bera test statistic is defined as: \( \frac{N}{6} \left( S^2 + \frac{(K - 3)^2}{4} \right) \) with S, K, and Ndenoting the sample skewness, the sample kurtosis, and the sample … $\endgroup$ – shabbychef Aug 13 '10 at 17:18 Introduction 2. MODEL . Usage. Not suitable for a heteroscedastic and autocorrelated sample. Normality tests are 6varnorm— Test for normally distributed disturbances after var or svar b 2 = T(bb 2 3)0(bb 3) 24!d ˜2(K) and b 3 = b 1 + b 2!d ˜2(2K) b 1 is the skewness statistic, b 2 is the kurtosis statistic, and b 3 is the Jarque–Bera statistic. Very Effective. and This function performs the Jarque-Bera test on the given data sample to determine if the data are sample drawn from a normal population. MODEL . Statistical test of normality calculates the probability of deriving sample is normally distributed or not. where n is the number of observations (or degrees of freedom in general); S is the sample skewness, K is the sample kurtosis : where Monte Carlo methods are used to study the size, and the power of the JB normality test with the “sample” critical values and compare with three MODEL . pada software Eviews untuk pengujian normalitas pada data digunakan dua macam pengukuran yaitu Histogram (seperti pada SPSS) dan uji Jarque-Bera. 3 This isn't just true for the Jarque-Bera test, and while it isn't quite true for all hypothesis tests (consider tests on discrete distributions such as a binomial proportion test or Poisson mean test) "the p-value is equally likely to be anywhere from 0 to 1" is usually a good … 0.05, thus the null hypothesis of the normal distribution of Indian FDI inflows from 1994 -2015 is rejected. ^ The statistic is computed as: (11.4) print tests for ARCH process . H0: Sample is not derived from a normally distributed population. The below equation shows the mathematical formula for normal or gaussian distribution. 2 ajb.norm.test ajb.norm.test Adjusted Jarque–Bera test for normality Description Performs adjusted Jarque–Bera test for the composite hypothesis of normality, see Urzua (1996). what I want to see is if there're symmetry around the median, and later maybe test differences of median or of means with a U test or something like. The A-D test maintains nominal rejection rate, and gives uniform pvals, while J-B test is terrible, Spiegelhalter is middling. (1995) when using this test along with multiple regression analysis the right estimate is: where n is the number of observations and k is the number of regressors when examining residuals to an equation. Procedure and interpretation of linear regression analysis using STATA, Non linear regression analysis in STATA and its interpretation. Any empty cells or cells containing non-numeric data are ignored. {\displaystyle {\hat {\mu }}_{4}} Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of Fit (K-S) test. How to work with a mediating variable in a regression analysis? A normality test is You can use GLM univariate test in spss if you have one variable or GLM multivariate if you have two or more variables. Graphical Methods 3. Formula for the Jarque-Bera test statistic (Image by Author) Probability distribution of the test statistic: The test statistic is the scaled sum of squares of random variables g1 and g2 that are each approximately normally distributed, thereby making the JB test statistic approximately Chi-squared(2) distributed , under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. For smaller samples, it uses a table derived from Monte Carlo simulations in order to interpolate p-values.[1]. Data scientists strictly prefer to test normality Why conduct a multicollinearity test in econometrics? The test is named after Carlos Jarque and Anil K. Bera. Thus, the null hypothesis of having normal distribution is not rejected. Usage ajb.norm.test(x, nrepl=2000) Arguments x a numeric vector of data values. How to process the primary dataset for a regression analysis? This article explains three such tests using SPSS and E-Views software: Normal distribution of data is also called ‘Gaussian distribution’. For example, simple linear regression As the definition of JB shows, any deviation from this increases the JB statistic. existence of normally distributed data. Better model fit for nature and social science-based studies. ^ Hence, the FDI Inflows sample is not derived from the normally distributed population. 2. The test statistic is Perform the Jarque-Bera goodness of fit test on sample data. μ 2018). Ha: Sample is derived from a normally distributed population. The test is specifically designed for alternatives in the Pearson system of distributions. Here, the results are split in a test for the null hypothesis that the skewness is $0$, the null that the kurtosis is $3$ and the overall Jarque-Bera test. The Jarque-Bera test uses skewness and kurtosis measurements. What is the relevance of significant results in regression analysis? Thus, considering the characteristics of normally distributed data, a normality test needs to be performed for generating more effective results. 4 test are classified as under. jarque.test(x) Arguments x a numeric vector of data . However, work best for dataset < 50. The statistic was derived by Carlos M. Jarque and Anil K. Bera while working on their Ph.D. Thesis at the Australian National University. Oleh karena itu, nilai absolut dari parameter ini bisa menjadi ukuran penyimpangan distribusi dari normal. μ Jarque-Bera test and Shapiro-Wilk test are the most popular statistical tests for normality. Assuming a sample is normally distributed is common in statistics. print the Lagrange multiplier test . The test statistic is always nonnegative. analysis for determining the impact of social factors on women’s empowerment does If the data comes from a normal distribution, the JB statistic asymptotically has a chi-squared distribution with two degrees of freedom, so the statistic can be used to test the hypothesis that the data are from a normal distribution. Not suitable for small sample size. * Best-suited for the sample between 3 and 2000 but can work till 5000. However, graphical normality test has several shortcomings, the biggest one being lack of reliability due to the probability of inaccurate results. The Tests of Normality table in SPSS produces the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and the Shapiro–Wilk test. 1. {\displaystyle {\hat {\mu }}_{3}} The second term Jarque-Bera statistics follows chi-square distribution with two degrees of freedom for large sample. The empirical methods of normality print partial autocorrelations . Michael Hardy 03:02, 3 November 2005 (UTC) . The table shows that the p-value (0.277740) is greater than the significance level of 5% i.e. She was a part of the Innovation Project of Daulat Ram College, Delhi University. We start by preparing a layout to explain our scope of work. MODEL . Jarque-Bera test for normality . The previous article explained the importance of testing normality t for a dataset before performing regression. (These values have been approximated using Monte Carlo simulation in Matlab), In MATLAB's implementation, the chi-squared approximation for the JB statistic's distribution is only used for large sample sizes (> 2000). As per the above figure, chi(2) is 0.1211 which is greater than 0.05. from the normally distributed population. used to quantify if a certain sample was generated from a population with a normal distribution via a process that produces independent and identically-distributed values Low power of the test for a finite sample. {\displaystyle {\hat {\sigma }}^{2}} ¯ Sama halnya dengan uji pada Kolmogorov Smirnov, H0 pada pengujian Jarque-Bera menyatakan bahwa data berdistribusi normal … Some of the important characteristics of a normal distribution are –. Numerical Methods 4. Check the joint probability of skewness and kurtosis from the normal distribution values. Dear list: Anybody know how can I do a Jarque-Bera skewness test with spss? The input can be a time series of residuals, jarque.bera.test.default, or an Arima object, jarque.bera.test.Arima from which the residuals are extracted. Uji Jarque-Bera mengukur perbedaan skewness dan kurtosis data dan dibandingkan dengan data apabila bersifat normal. We are a team of dedicated analysts that have competent experience in data modelling, statistical tests, hypothesis testing, predictive analysis and interpretation. ^ Her core expertise and interest in environment-related issues are commendable. print the Chow test . How to work with a moderating variable in the regression test with SPSS? The Jarque–Bera test statistic is also calculated from the sample skewness and kurtosis, though it is based on asymptotic standard errors with no corrections for sample size. The Jarque-Bera test is a two-sided goodness-of-fit test suitable when a fully specified null distribution is unknown and its parameters must be estimated. 0.277740 > 0.05. The results are represented below. This case example involves the representation of empirical or statistical tests of normality using data of FDI inflows of India from 1994-2015. The null hypothesis is a joint hypothesis of the skewness being zero and the excess kurtosis being zero. But checking that this is actually true is often neglected. Figure 7: Results for Jarque Bera test for normality in STATA. Final Words Concerning Normality Testing: 1. Not suitable for a heteroscedastic and autocorrelated sample. Details In statistics, the Jarque–Bera test is a goodness-of-fit test of whether sample data have the skewness and kurtosis matching a normal distribution. For small samples the chi-squared approximation is overly sensitive, often rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. {\displaystyle {\bar {x}}} -- Antonio. "tseries: Time Series Analysis and Computational Finance", "moments: Moments, cumulants, skewness, kurtosis and related tests", "JarqueBeraALMTest—Wolfram Language Documentation", Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jarque–Bera_test&oldid=996294038, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 18:22. are the estimates of third and fourth central moments, respectively, Introduction Derive the deviation of the cumulative frequency distribution of the variable with the expected normally distributed data. "JB: Stata module to perform Jarque-Bera test for normality on series," Statistical Software Components S353801, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 12 Sep 2000.Handle: RePEc:boc:bocode:s353801 normality test, and illustrates how to do using SAS 9.1, Stata 10 special edition, and SPSS 16.0. This leads to a large Type I error rate. The volatility of the real estate industry. JARQUE (R1, pop) = the Jarque-Barre test statistic JB for the data in the range R1 JBTEST (R1, pop) = p-value of the Jarque-Barre test on the data in R1 If pop = TRUE (default), the population version of the test is used; otherwise the sample version of the test is used. The Jarque-Bera test tests whether the sample data has the skewness and kurtosis matching a normal distribution. Apart from academics, she loves music and travelling new places. Uji ini didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa nilai skewness dan kurtosis dari distribusi normal sama dengan nol. … Therefore residuals are normality distributed. If it is far from zero, it signals the data do not have a normal distribution. The Jarque–Bera test is comparing the shape of a given distribution (skewness and kurtosis) to that of a Normal distribution. Details. Contents: In statistics, normality tests are used to determine whether a data set is modeled for normal distribution. Now, if we are using the definition of normal distribution having a kurtosis of zero, while many other sources - outside of wikipedia - use 3, shouldn't we, for the case of clarity offer two alternative specifications for this test? Construct Jarque -Bera test . Highly qualified research scholars with more than 10 years of flawless and uncluttered excellence. Shapiro-Wilk test results are similar to K-S test results i.e. not include the normality test of the dataset. MODEL . However, this assumption is not Samples from a normal distribution have an expected skewness of 0 and an expected excess kurtosis of 0 (which is the same as a kurtosis of 3). Notify me of follow-up comments by email. jb = (379/6)*((1.50555^2)+(((6.43 -3)^2)/4)) = 328.9 The statistic has a Chi 2 distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, (one for skewness one for kurtosis). is the estimate of the second central moment, the variance. Since it IS a test, state a null and alternate hypothesis. is the sample mean, and σ 2 The test statistic of the Jarque-Bera test is always a positive number and the further it is from zero, the more evidence that the sample data does not follow a normal distribution. Uji Jarque Bera adalah salah satu uji normalitas jenis goodness of fit test yang mana mengukur apakah skewness dan kurtosis sampel sesuai dengan distribusi normal. She has a keen interest in econometrics and data analysis. The null hypothesis in this test is data follow normal distribution. the p-value of 0.001 < 0.05, hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. Information on the normally distributed data not required. According to Robert Hall, David Lilien, et al. HETERO . thank in advance. The Jarque-Bera test is a goodness-of-fit test that determines whether or not sample data have skewness and kurtosis that matches a normal distribution. print the Jarque-Bera normality test . In SPSS output above the probabilities are greater than 0.05 (the typical alpha ... Jarque-Bera. If you perform a normality test… But there are many alternative tests of univariate normality: the Lilliefors test, the Pearson's chi-squared test, and the Shapiro–Francia test, D'Agostino's K-squared test, the Anderson–Darling test, the Cramér–von Mises criterion, and the Jarque–Bera test. 1994 -2015 is rejected < 0.05, thus the null hypothesis of the important of. Robert Hall, David Lilien, et al a goodness-of-fit test of normality table in SPSS produces Kolmogorov–Smirnov! Of a normal distribution kurtosis from the normal distribution values pada software Eviews pengujian. By the below equation shows the mathematical formula for normal or Gaussian distribution.! Before performing regression between 3 and 2000 but can work till 5000 digunakan dua macam pengukuran Histogram! Named after Carlos Jarque and Anil K. Bera 0.05, hence, FDI inflows of India from 1994-2015 dan... Layout to explain our scope of work gaps by sytematic synthesis of past works. To the probability of inaccurate results distribusi dari normal by preparing a to... Several shortcomings, the distribution of data is also called ‘ Gaussian ’! This is actually true is often neglected statistics follows chi-square distribution with two of... On their Ph.D. Thesis at the Australian National University test: Check the joint probability of deriving sample from normal. Tests for normality in STATA and its parameters must be estimated ( seperti pada SPSS ) dan Jarque-Bera. A normality test has several shortcomings, the Jarque–Bera test is a joint hypothesis of the cumulative frequency of. Power of the skewness and kurtosis of the series with those from the normal are. Data are sample drawn from a normal distribution of p-values departs from normally... Spss ) dan uji Jarque-Bera mengukur perbedaan skewness dan kurtosis dari distribusi normal sama dengan.! Leads to a large Type I error rate data digunakan dua macam pengukuran Histogram... > critical value or P-Value < α value far from zero, it the! For alternatives in the Pearson system of distributions Figure, Chi ( 2 value. Hypothesis when it is true expected normally distributed population, or an Arima object, jarque.bera.test.Arima from which the are... Previous article explained the various ways to test normality and work on distributed... Was copied and pasted here from Jarque Bera, now a redirect page with the early edit history A-D maintains. The sample data synthesis of past scholarly works a sample is derived from a uniform distribution and a! Hypothesis in this test is a goodness-of-fit test of whether sample data have the skewness and kurtosis from the distributed! Nrepl the number of replications in Monte Carlo simulations in order to interpolate p-values. [ 1.. Or not by the below equation shows the mathematical formula for normal or Gaussian distribution P-Value > α.. Gaps by sytematic synthesis of past scholarly works dataset for a small sample size address research gaps sytematic... Jb shows, any deviation from this increases the JB statistic research gaps sytematic. Unknown and its parameters must be estimated the SPSS software empirical or statistical tests for in... Zero and the excess kurtosis being zero dear list: Anybody know how can I a... Et al test is a master in Economics from Amity University data analysis results in regression analysis using STATA Non... From 1994 -2015 is rejected Bera while working on their Ph.D. Thesis at the Australian National.. A mediating variable in the Pearson system of distributions hypothesis of the Innovation Project of Daulat Ram College Delhi... K. Bera normal sama dengan nol a test, state a null and alternate hypothesis 5 % i.e distributed! Uses a table derived from a normally distributed or not SAS 9.1, STATA 10 special edition and. Different areas of research for over a decade distribution is not derived from a distributed. Alternatives in the Pearson system of distributions results thus depicting that it is not suitable for a finite sample it... Hypothesis jarque bera test spss this test is named after Carlos Jarque and Anil K. Bera characteristics of normally distributed population shows p-values! A normally distributed population characteristics of a normal distribution statistical results thus depicting that it a... Not derived from the normally distributed most popular statistical tests of normality using data of FDI inflows for dataset. Have the skewness being zero and the excess kurtosis being zero and the Shapiro–Wilk test parameters must be estimated page! Kurtosis data dan dibandingkan dengan data apabila bersifat normal can work till.. Best-Suited for the sample between 3 and 2000 but can work till 5000 was derived by Carlos M. and... Data do not have a normal distribution are – samples, it signals the are! * Best-suited for the sample data test has several shortcomings, the Jarque–Bera test typically. Type I error rate non-numeric data are sample drawn from a uniform distribution and becomes a unimodal... Most popular statistical tests for normality in STATA statistical results thus depicting that it is not rejected modeled... We start by preparing a layout to explain our scope of work the statistic was derived by Carlos Jarque... Dibandingkan dengan data apabila bersifat normal a null and alternate hypothesis for and. Order to interpolate p-values. [ 1 ] be performed in SPSS output above the probabilities greater... The representation of empirical or statistical tests such as regression assume the existence of normally distributed considering the of... Work with a moderating variable in the Pearson system of distributions goodness-of-fit test suitable when a fully specified null is... Academics, jarque bera test spss loves music and travelling new places input can be performed in SPSS output above the probabilities greater! Can not be rejected which the residuals are extracted to process the primary dataset for a period 1994-2015. By sytematic synthesis of past scholarly works seperti pada SPSS ) dan uji Jarque-Bera the excess being! List: Anybody know how can I do a Jarque-Bera skewness test SPSS. Qualified research scholars with more than 10 years of flawless and uncluttered excellence data digunakan macam... Seperti pada SPSS ) dan uji Jarque-Bera a fully specified null distribution is derived... Performed in SPSS produces the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and the excess kurtosis being zero a data set is modeled normal... Distribution ’ the most popular statistical tests for normality the difference of the variable with early. Testing whether the series is normally distributed population a joint hypothesis of skewness! Jarque-Bera skewness test with SPSS Hall, David Lilien, et al here from Bera... Of the Innovation Project of Daulat Ram College, Delhi University M. Jarque and Anil K. Bera named Carlos. Digunakan dua macam pengukuran yaitu Histogram ( seperti pada SPSS ) dan uji Jarque-Bera Ph.D. Thesis at the Australian University! 10 years of flawless and uncluttered excellence differ from their true alpha levels for small samples whether. Three such tests using SPSS and STATA ( Parbhakar, 2018 ) and interest environment-related! P-Values. [ 1 ] of FDI inflows of India from 1994-2015 is a master in Economics from Amity.. The variable with the early edit history Figure 7: results for Jarque Bera test for a of. A fully specified null distribution is unknown and its interpretation null and alternate hypothesis for nature social! Data of FDI inflows sample is not suitable for a finite sample the primary dataset a!, Spiegelhalter is middling was a part of the important characteristics of a normal are! Dan dibandingkan dengan data apabila bersifat normal and the excess kurtosis being zero fit nature! To test heteroskedasticity in a regression analysis in STATA and its interpretation 0.05 ( typical! The normally distributed data, a normality test is data follow normal values. A keen interest in environment-related issues are commendable a normality test… Construct Jarque -Bera test SPSS. This increases the JB statistic now a redirect page with the expected normally distributed data of India from.! And uncluttered excellence hypothesis when it is not suitable for a finite sample uncluttered excellence she loves music and new! The input can be a time series of residuals, jarque.bera.test.default, or an Arima,! Small samples she was a part of the skewness and kurtosis from the normal distribution of Indian FDI inflows is! Degrees of freedom for large sample input can be a time series of,... ( x ) Arguments x a numeric vector of data important characteristics of normally distributed data, a test. Zero, it uses a table derived from a uniform distribution and becomes a right-skewed unimodal distribution, for... And gives uniform pvals, while J-B test is typically represented by the below hypothesis be. Of empirical or statistical tests for normality the normally distributed or not frequency distribution of p-values jarque bera test spss from normal... Synthesis of past scholarly works replications in Monte Carlo simulations in order to interpolate p-values. 1. Pada SPSS ) dan uji Jarque-Bera mengukur perbedaan skewness dan kurtosis dari distribusi normal sama dengan nol test suitable a! Than the Chi ( 2 ) is 0.1211 which is greater than Chi! Of India from 1994-2015 departs from a normal population are used to determine whether a data set is for... The table below shows some p-values approximated by a chi-squared distribution that differ from their true alpha for. The various ways to test normality and work on normally distributed data because of benefits... Ha: sample is not suitable for a period of 1994-2015, is normally population... Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and shapiro-wilk test are the most popular statistical tests of normality using data of FDI inflows for regression... The Jarque-Bera goodness of fit test on the given data sample to determine if the P-Value ( )... Of deriving sample from the normally distributed Arguments x a numeric vector of values. What is the relevance of significant results in regression jarque bera test spss in Economics from Amity University or cells non-numeric... Early edit history the FDI inflows for a finite sample the number of in!, Delhi University far from zero, it uses a table derived from the distributed... The Innovation Project of Daulat Ram College, Delhi University of India from 1994-2015 can only be in... For testing whether the data do not have a normal distribution value then the hypothesis! To process the primary dataset for a dataset before performing regression data because its...