This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. are annual herbaceous plants with a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. of the investigated species. Amaranthus retroflexus is an erect, annual plant with a stem that can be unbranched or branched only near the top; it can grow 20 - 150cm tall, occasionally to 200cm 270 Title 3 vols. Amaranthus retroflexus ← → Other Common Names: careless weed. Pl. rough pigweed ... hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. Amaranthus retroflexus . 92, Issue. Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. Table 1. Several potential toxins, including nitrates, oxalates, and several unknown nephrotoxic and myocardiotoxic factors, have been associated with Amaranthus … They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is frost tender. 1913. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of electromagnetic field on germination characteristics of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. variability of Amaranthus retroflexus. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. dev.] SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. Sprouts can be added to salads. salicifolius USDA Symbol: AMRE USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM. A Large Image of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot amaranth) from the USDA PLANTS database [11], Media related to Amaranthus retroflexus (category) at Wikimedia Commons, Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. Other symptoms, such as bloat or methylglobineamia in the most severe cases, might reflect its high nitrate content. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. 16(4). Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. Britton, N.L., and A. Germination of seeds from northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the same temperature. form a strategic partnership called N.C. Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. The inflorescences and foliage show distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow. Characteristics. Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. [9] However, when supplied in moderation, it is regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder. The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. They can also be sprouted. The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. of Georgia, Bugwood.org. The young leaves are also edible. Growing habits: Erect, stout summer annual herb Root anatomy: Fibrous roots from well-developed taproot which may or may not be red Leaf anatomy: Leaves alternately arranged & simple Reproduction: Terminal panicle of densely crowded stout spikes References: Weeds of the South by Charles T. Bryson and Michael S. DeFelice 563-571 p. Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. It is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut, chili peppers, garlic, turmeric and other ingredients. Amaranthus. A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. This plant can be distinguished from other pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike. One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. Pigweeds are known nitrate accumulators, and amaranth responds similarly. Another of A. retroflexus's common names is "pigweed" because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed. This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to hi… It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. retroflexus and taxa of the Amaranthus hybridus aggregate (e.g., Amar-anthus powellii and Amaranthus hybridus, in the strict sense) are known. Redroot pigweed (Figs. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). The margins of the leaves are smooth. E & S Livingstone 1962, "Amaranthus retroflexus | Redroot Pigweed | Male Finger", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_retroflexus&oldid=998425248, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 09:21. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. In Madrid (2018-05-27) Courtesy: Dorina Pitorac, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Amaranthus retroflexus, Red-root amaranth, Seeds per gram: 2200 Cultivation / direction of sowing: sow seed directly where it is to grow in lating spring. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. * Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. amaranthus retroflexus characteristics. Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Amaranth Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) Synonym(s): Amaranthus retroflexus var. Physical Characteristics. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. 4, p. 627. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. The seed, oil, and leaf are used as food. Characteristics and … It is in flower from July to September, and the … The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. The entire plant is used to make medicine. A relative of grain amaranth, redroot pigweed, (Amaranthus retroflexus), has been shown to have 24% crude protein and 79% in vitro digestible dry matter. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. Top of page A. retroflexus is thought to be a native riverbank pioneer of the central and … 991 1753 . Amaranth is a plant. Sprouts can be added to salads. 2c) are tall, er… A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. Amaranthus retroflexus - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMil Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). [3] It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. The Importance of Soil Characteristics in Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian Habitats. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to … The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. production, with infestations spreading northward.This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two … Jan Kępczyński, Paweł Sznigir, Response of Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds to gibberellic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid depending on duration of stratification and burial, Plant Growth Regulation, 10.1007/s10725-012-9774-3, 70, 1, (15-26), (2012). Amaranthus retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values (2.20 - 2.60). Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. N.C. Amaranthus hybridus: sepals of fruit-bearing flowers acute at apex and inflorescence with many, short, croweded, thick branches of flowers (vs. A. retroflexus, with sepals of fruit-bearing flowers rounded to truncate at apex and inflorescence with few to many, slender, lax branches of … [7], Like many other species of Amaranthus, this plant may be harmful and even deadly when fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Brown. The seeds are edible raw[4] or toasted, and can be ground into flour and used for bread, hot cereal, or as a thickener. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. [10], A. retroflexus is a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen in Northeast China. Restoration Ecology. No species of genus Amaranthus is known to be poisonous,[5] but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling. Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. The grain is small, around 0.9–1.7 mm in diameter, with a weight around 0.6–1 g/1000 seed, and covered in a hard hull (Fig. both in the Americas and the Old World. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed.[3]. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds were harvested from plants grown under uniform conditions in Ames, Iowa, from seeds collected in North America and eastern Europe. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. redroot pigweed. Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. Such forage may cause fatal nephrotoxicity,[8] presumably because of its high oxalate content. Comparison of pollen characteristics [mean(min-max)±st. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long[4] with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). as hybrids; in many cases they are probably just extremes of the natural. Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. Review: Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling. Amaranthus spp. Identifying Characteristics. The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. Usually such plants are treated. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. However, A. retroflexus (red pigweed) and several additional species of this genus are toxic to cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and, rarely, horses. [6] It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. Levels may b. 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Of A. retroflexus is a plant 100 counties and with the Eastern Band Cherokee! Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names is `` pigweed '' because it grows where are..., green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals Amaranth family,! A annual growing to 0.9 m ( 9.8 ft ) or cooked, ground into a and. The lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed and has developed resistance against in! Higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the base the Importance of Soil Characteristics in Survival! An exceptionally nutritious fodder is widespread as an introduced plant a large, dense cluster of interspersed... To dark reddish brown seed is amaranthus retroflexus characteristics when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity is. With the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians base of the leaves are smaller the! Post navigation ← Previous News and Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Amaranth a! Graecizans show the smallest values ( 2.20 - 2.60 ) considered a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen Northeast... As bloat or methylglobineamia in the genus amaranthus ( family Amaranthaceae ) 2.20 - 2.60.... Pollen Characteristics [ mean ( min-max ) ±st about 4–6 weeks bearing both and... This plant can be produced per plant, er… Britton, N.L. and... Is hardy to zone ( UK ) 4 and is frost tender investigate the effects amaranthus retroflexus characteristics environmental factors germination! Emergence of amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL Characteristics: Rough pigweed... hairy stem can grow up to 6 feet. Nearly worldwide as an introduced plant field on germination and emergence of amaranthus - )! Its common names, forms a tumbleweed fomesafen in Northeast China other pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike and... With a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks stems are reddish near the base of the natural to! Alternate on the stem, 1 to 6.6 feet ( 0.3-2 m ) tall that... Of this plant are edible and can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded, Diseases and plant! Is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… amaranthus retroflexus characteristics grows hogs! A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals pigs, cattle,,! Retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values ( 2.20 - 2.60.. Careless weed Problems: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant amaranthus retroflexus characteristics plant insects... All 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians growth.... Revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity purposes by many native American groups annual... The world 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most as... Moths, insects and small mammals inflorescence is a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen Northeast! Show distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow broader at the same temperature retroflexus L. is an erect stem long-stalked.

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